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Plus Two Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Question and Answers PDF Download

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Plus Two Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Question and Answers

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Question 1.
The process by which people are categorized into different levels is called…. by Sociologists,
a) social inequality
b) Social exclusion
c) Social stratification
d) Social control
Social inequality

Question 2.
Keeping, individuals away from all activities of the society is called
a) social inequality
b) Social exclusion
c) Social stratification
d) Social control

Question 3.
Who called the untouchables as Harijans (Children of God) and publicized that name?
a) Ambedkar
b) Ayyankali
c) Sri Narayana Guru
d) Gandhiji

Question 4.
Which was the first Backward Community Commission in India?
a) Netter Commission
b) Mandal Commission
c) Kothari Commission
d) Kaka Kalelkar Commission
Kaka Kalelkar Commission

Question 5.
Who was the head of the second Backward Community Commission in India?
B.P. Mandal

Question 6.
Who was the Chairman of the Backward Community Commission appointed he Kerala government in 1970?
b) V.P. Singh
c) KakaKalelkar
d) Nettur

Question 7.
Who started the Bengali Social Reform Movement?
a) JyotibaPhule
b) SirSayyed Ahmed Khan
c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
d) Mahadev Govind Ranade
Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 8.
Who formed the Brahma Samaj?
Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 9.
Match the following.

Gandhiji Harijans
B.P. Mandal Backward Commission
Tharabai Shinde Male-Female Equality
Anita Ghai Differently-abled people

Question 10.
Social inequality and seclusion are realities in the life of the Indian society. Explain.
Social inequality and seclusion are realities in the life of the Indian society. On the street, we see so many beggars. We also see small children employed to work in households. We see them working as helpers in construction sites, tea shops, and temporary food outlets. We see them engaged in cleaning jobs. We see small children working as servants in households carrying the school bags of children who are much bigger than them.

Often these sights don’t affect us. We may not feel that forcing children to work at their school-going age, preventing them from learning, is injustice. We often read how children are segregated or discriminated in school, we hear about violence against women, hatred to minorities, contempt for the physically or mentally challenged, etc. These news items also may not affect us much. All these are examples of social inequality and seclusion.

Question 11.
What are the social implications of social inequality and seclusion?
There are three answers to this question.
a) Firstly, they are not related to individuals. They are concerned with groups and therefore they are social issues.
b) Secondly, they are not economic problems. In this, they are social issues.
c) Thirdly, they are well-established and structural. Social inequalities have a definite pattern.

Question 12.
How can we classify social resources?
We can classify social resources into capitals of three kinds:
a) financial (economic) capital.
b) cultural capital.
c) social capital

  • Economic capital refers to material wealth and income.
  • Cultural capital refers to education and positions.
  • Social capital refers to the chains of relations and social organizations.

Question 13.
Explain the principles that help in the stratification of people.
a) Social stratification is a feature of society: Social stratification is a feature of society. It is not merely the difference between individuals. It is something that permeates (covers) the entire society. Stratification implies that the societal resources are inequitably distributed among the different classes of people. In backward societies, production was very little and therefore stratification was also only nominal, or very minimal. Societies that lived by hunting and collecting foods are examples for this. But where societies achieved technological progress, stratification was seen in its full color. In such societies, people produced surplus, more than what they required. These resources were unequally distributed among the people of different classes. The innate abilities of people were not considered here.
b) Social stratification has been in existence for generations: Social stratification is related to the family and also to the societal resources that one generation receives from the previous one as hereditary property. The social status of a person is imposed on him. A person gets the social status of his parents. For example, a Dalit is supposed to do only traditional jobs like farming, scavenging or leatherwork. Because of that, he had very limited chances of getting jobs with higher pay. Such social inequalities were further aggravated by rules like marrying in the same caste. This prevented people from removing the boundary lines through mixed marriages.
c) The ways of faith or ideologies support Social stratification: If Social stratification is to continue through generations it must be proved to be inevitable. For example, the Jati system was justified through the ‘Purity-Pollution’ (suddha-asuddha) concept. This made Brahmins high caste and Dalits low caste merely by birth and profession. Not everyone approves inequality as a legitimate system. People with special privileges in the society support systems like Jati and Varna. But those who suffer contempt and negligence raise their voice against them.

Question 14.
What are prejudices? What are their social repercussions?
Prejudices are the biased feelings and attitudes people of one class have about members of other classes. This is an opinion formed about a familiar thing without taking into consideration any evidence against it. Some prejudices are developed on mere hearsay. A prejudiced person refuses to examine any evidence. Even if he gets evidences to the contrary, he refuses to give up his previous opinion.

Prejudice can be positive or negative. Usually, it is used in a negative sense. But sometimes it can be positive also. For example, one may feel that his Caste is better than other Castes. Very often such prejudices are found when it comes to women in one’s Caste.

Question 15.
Discrimination is a feature of social inequality and seclusion. Explain.
Discrimination is definitely a feature of social inequality and seclusion Prejudices talk about biased opinions and attitudes. But discrimination shows one’s behavior towards people of another class or group, or an individual.

Denying opportunities because of Jati, religion, or gender can be considered discrimination. Denying a job because of gender is discrimination. Discrimination is difficult to prove. Very often discrimination is cleverly hidden behind other reasonable explanations. For example, if a person is refused to be appointed to a post because of his Jati, nobody will tell him that he was rejected because of his Jati. He will be told that he is unfit for the job because of some other reasons.

Question 16.
What is meant by social seclusion?
Social seclusion means keeping away individuals from participating in the activities of the society. By these individuals or groups of individuals are denied the opportunities available to the majority of others. To have a reasonable life, persons need food, clothes, and shelter. I.n addition to these essential requirements, they also need education, health, transport, insurance, social security, banking, police services, and court. When these things are denied to people, there is social seclusion.

Social seclusion is hot accidental. It is well established. It is related to the structure of the society, tt is not something that is done with one’s consent. It is done without considering the feelings of the secluded. It is against their will.

Question 17.
How has the Jati System categorized people?
Historically, Jai system has classified people based on profession and status. Each Jati is connected with a particular profession. Persons born in particular Jati are supposed to do the work of only that Jati. The Jati rules don’t allow them to choose other jobs. In the same way; in the stratification of classes, their Jati will have a particular slot.

Another feature Jati system is the differentiation between social status and economic status. For example, Brahmins who have high social status are under kings or rulers who belong to Kshatriyas in non-religious matters. At the same time kings, in spite of their wealth and power, are under Brahmins in religious matters like pooja and other rituals.

Question 18.
What is the relation between social status and economic status?
There are close relations between them in spite of the differences. Normally, people who have high social status will also have high economic status. The financial status of the lower castes will below. But this situation has changed since the 19th century. The strictness with Jati and profession has been reduced. The religious and ritual control over professions could not be imposed in the changed situation. Now people can choose any job they like without any caste consideration. Now people change jobs as they like.

The relation between Jati and economic power has also weakened. The situation is quite different from the one some 50 or 60 years ago. There are rich people and poor people in all Castes. However, if we look very carefully we can still see that the relation between social class and economic status has some relevance.

Question 19.
What is untouchability? What is its basis?
Untouchability is the worst part of the Jati System. Jati system imposes severe social controls and restraints on the lower castes. The suddha-asuddha (Purity- Pollution) concept is behind this heinous system. Those who are outside the Jati system were considered untouchables. They are impure. Even their touch can pollute members of other Jatis. If the Untouchables touch members of the Upper Castes, they would be given severe punishments. Those who were touched by the Untouchables had to undergo complex purification processes.

Question 20.
Describe the three measures of Untouchability.
They are:
a) Seclusion
b) Ridicule and submission
c) Exploitation
Seclusion is to be suffered only by the Untouchables. Other Jatis don’t suffer from it. It is the Dalits who suffer the worst form of seclusion. They could not draw water from public wells. They could not worship with other Jatis or take part in any functions of festivities. But they are forced to do low jobs. For example, they were forced to beat the tom-toms (chenda) during religious functions.

Ridicule and submission are important aspects of Untouchability. Dalit and other lower castes are to do certain symbolic signs in public to show respect to the higher castes. They had to remove their head- cover, hold their slippers in their hand, stand with bowed heads, and not wear clean and colorful clothes. They were often scolded and ridiculed public.

Economic exploitation was another factor of Untouchability. Dalits and lower castes were exploited in various ways. They were forced to work without payment or with very little payment. Their properties were often confiscated by the higher castes.

Question 21.
Untouchability is an Indian phenomenon. Comment.
Untouchability is certainly an Indian phenomenon. There might be some variations in its intensity and forms, depending on regional, historical and social background.

Untouchables were known by different names in different centuries. In the ancient period, they were called ‘Chandalas’. All those names were contemptuous and degenerative. Some of the names are used even today as abusive words, even though it is a criminal offense. In the 1930s, with a view to remove the contempt in the names, Gandhiji gave the Untouchables a new name ‘Harijans’. It means children of God. He made that name popular.

But the untouchable groups and their leaders gave them their own name ‘Dalits’. Today this name is widely used. ‘Dalit’ means suppressed. Dr. Ambedkar never used this name. But the echo of his philosophy and his Empowering Movement is heard in this name. In the 1970s, during the Jati revolts in Bombay, the word ‘Dalit’ received great popularity. The Dalit Panthers was a revolutionary group from Western India and they used this name to uphold their being and individuality.

Question 22.
What are the legal steps that the Government took against Caste discrimination?
Government passed many laws to prevent caste discrimination and to punish offenders. One of them is the Freedom of Religion Act of 1850. This Law says that the rights of citizens should not be reduced or denied if they change their Caste or Religion.

The 93rd Amendment to our Constitution in 2005 also is on similar lines. It came into effect from 23 January 2006. Both the 1850 Act and the 2006 Constitution Amendment Act are related to education. The 1850 Law gave the Dalits admission to government schools. The 2006 Amendment made reservations to Other Backward Classes in our Higher Educational Institutions.

Between 1850 and 2006, many laws were enacted by various governments. The Indian Constitution (1950) itself is one such law. In 1989 the “Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act” came into force. This law was enacted with the specific purpose of preventing atrocities to the members of scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This law recommended severe punishments to those who committed offenses against Dalits and Adivasis. By the 17th article of the Constitution, Untouchability was abolished.

Question 23.
Codify the steps taken by the Nation to prevent discrimination based on Caste and Tribe.

  • Reservation
  • provisions in the Constitution
  • Different kinds of Laws
  • Act of 1850
  • Act of 1980
  • Act of 2006
  • Abolition of Untouchability

Question 24.
Give examples of struggles for social justice,
Even before independence, people like Jyotiba Phule, lyodi Das, Periyar (E.V, Ramaswami Naicker) and Ambedkar had fought against Caste discriminations. There are many organizations today that fight for the rights of Dalits. The Bahujan Samaj Party of UP, Dalit Sangharsh Samiti in Karnataka, etc. are prominent among them. Dalit writers have given valuable contributions to the literature of various Indian languages like Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, and Hindi and they have beep highlighting the problems of Dalits and seeking solutions.

Question 25.
What were the struggles against discrimination from non-governmental agencies?

  • Struggles by Social Reformers
  • Dalit Movements
  • Contributions in the field of literature

Question 26.
The main problem of Adivasis is migration by other people. Explain.
The Adivasi problem is made worse because of migration by other people. Today except in the North-Eastern States, there is no region where only Tribals are living. Only in some places, there are their concentrations. From the mid 19th century, non-Tribals began to migrate into the Tribal districts of Central India. The Tribals in these areas left their habitat and went to other places seeking jobs in estates, mines, and factories.

The economic condition of the Tribals in places where they have concentrated is much worse than the non- Tribals there. Adivasis stay in circumstances of poverty and exploitation. It is the exploitation done by rulers and their agents that pushed the Adivasis into their present miserable situation.

Question 27.
What are some of the challenges that Adivasis face?
The Sardar Sarovar Dam in the Narmada River in Western India and the Polavaram Dam in Godavari in Andhra Pradesh have made thousands of Adivasis leave their homes, pushing them into poverty. In the 1990s there were the economic liberalization policies and this has made their condition even worse. With the liberalization policy, many corporate companies appeared. They drove away the Adivasis from their land giving them very little compensation and started schemes to exploit the natural resources there. The word Adivasi means ‘real settlers’ or ‘first settlers’. This word was used as a part of the struggle against those who trespassed into the habitat of Adivasis as part of the Colonial Government’s schemes for the so-called development.

Adivasis are people who have been losing their land and forest in the name of development. This word has also the symbolic meaning of political awareness and claiming their rights.

The Tribals have fought seriously protesting against discrimination and exploitation. They have fought against the intruders and the government. Because of their struggles, Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh became States. At this level, the struggles of Adivasis are different from those of Dalits. As Adivasis live in large numbers in nearby areas, they could demand States of their own. But Dalits are so scattered all over, they can’t make such demands.

Question 28.
Describe the struggles of women for equality with men.
From time immemorial, women have been victims of exploitation and inequality. As the Reform Movements of modern India took the problems of women seriously, they were brought to public attention. There were regional differences in the Social Reform Movements that came up in the 19* century. They are often called Middle-Class Reformation Movements.

It is so because most of the Reformists were Middle-Class men who had got western education. Western concepts about democracy and the ancient democratic traditions of India had influenced them in equal measure. Many of them used these ideas in their fight against inequality. Rajaram Mohan Roy in Bengal, Mahadev Govind Ranade in Bombay Presidency and Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan among the Muslims fought for the rights of women. Rajaram Mohan Roy especially fought for women’s rights. Ranade fought for widow-remarriage. Jyotirao Phule fought against gender discrimination. Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan struggled for reforms in Islam.

It was Rajaram Mohan Roy that started the first Reform Movement in Bengal. He tried to bring changes in the Indian society and Hinduism. In 1928 he founded Brahma Samaj. He had started is fight against Sati even before that. Sati was the first ‘problem’ that grabbed public attention. Roy formulated an ideology that was a mixture of European rationalism and Indian tradition. He used both these concepts to fight against Sati. He proved that Sati was anti-human and anti-religious.

Widows in the Upper Castes had to suffer a lot. Their bad condition was noticed by the Reformists. They took up their case. They fought for the rights of widows and also for their right to remarry. Ranade made use of books like “Analogy of Religion, Three Sermons on Human Nature” by Bishop Joseph Butler. Ranade’s books like the “Texts of the Hindu Law “, “Lawfulness of the Remarriage of Widows”, and “Vedic Authorities for Remarriage” established that widow remarriage had the sanction of the Vedas.

Rajaram Mohan RdV and Ranade were Middle-Class Upper Caste Reformists. Reformists from the lower classes also fought for women’s equality. Jyoti Rao Phule from Maharashtra is an example. He fought heroically against gender discrimination and Jati system. He founded a Movement called Satyasodhak Samaj”, seeking truth. This Organization did a lot for the benefit of women and Untouchables.

In the light of Western ideas, Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan tried to reform the Islamic community. He recommended reforms keeping himself within the framework of religion. He argued for the education of Muslim girls. He said that this education could be given in places near their homes. Like Swami Vivekananda, he also stood for women education. He said that in their curriculum, religious principles, training for running a home, skills in handicrafts, and childcare should be included: We must evaluate him by looking at the circumstances in which he made these suggestions. His contributions for women education were really great.

Question 29.
Was it only men that fought for women’s rights? Explain.
Some people have said that it was men who actually fought for women’s rights and their ideas were imported from Western nations. Both these ideas are wrong.

There were many women who fought for women’s rights. Pandita Ramabai, Mataji Maharani Thapaswini, Anandibai and Sr. Subbalakshmi were some of them. There were many writers who highlighted the problems of women with their powerful writing. They include Tharabai Shinde and Begum Rokea Sakhawat Hussain.

Question 30.
What were the declarations of the Karachi Meeting of the Congress?
The Karachi Meeting of the Congress was in 1931. It made a declaration regarding the fundamental rights of Indian citizens. It highlighted woman-equality. Here are the main points of the declaration:

  • All are equal before law irrespective of caste, religion, class, and gender.
  • There will be no discrimination against anybody on the basis of religion, caste, class or gender for taking up government jobs, occupying positions of authority and getting any titles. Each person will have the right to do whatever profession he chooses.
  • Voting right will be based on adult franchise.
  • Women will have the right to vote and take up public positions.

Question 31.
Even after independence, there are unsolved women problems. Explain with examples.
Two decades after independence, in the 1970s, women’s problems again came to the forefront. Reform Movements of the 19th century were mainly against evils like Sati and child marriage, They also tried for women education and widow-remarriage. But in the 1970s the problems were ‘modem’. Raping of women in police custody, murders in the name of dowry, women representation in public offices and media, gender discrimination in jobs and positions, etc. were some of them.

In the 1980s there was a demand to restructure laws related to women. Activists pointed out that there were no changes in the laws that were made in the 1911 century.

In the 21st century, new issues of gender equality surfaced. The most significant of them was the reduction in female population. The fall in the number of females shows society’s wrong attitude towards women. This raises new challenges. Only through prolonged struggles can these injustices be ended.

Question 32.
What are the general concepts about differently-abled people?
Everywhere in the world, there are common concepts about differently-abled people. Here are the main points:

  • Handicap is a biological phenomenon.
  • The problems of the differently-abled person come from his/her handicaps.
  • Differently-abled people are considered ‘victims’.
  • A person’s handicap is related to his self-respect.
  • The very word handicap suggests that the person needs help.

Question 33.
What are the views of society about handicapped people?
Any handicap was seen as a negative feature of that person. Even in Indian mythology, the handicapped term ‘Differently-abled’ for handicapped people challenges the old concepts. It is argued that it is not biological factors that make somebody handicapped, but the attitude of society. Brisendine has rightly said: “Handicap lies in the structure of the society, and not in the physical condition of the individual.” All structures including courts were built by the society and all this was done without giving any consideration to the handicapped.

They create obstacles for the handicapped. Thus they are denied opportunities for education and jobs. We have now seen that handicap is something that society has made. It has another aspect also. There is a close relation between handicap and poverty. Children with handicaps are born mainly in families suffering from malnutrition. Lack of proper health of parents, regularly repeated childbirth by the mother, lack of preventive medicines, accidents that happen in crowded homes, etc. are main causes for handicaps. This is the reason for having more handicapped people among the poor than among the rich.

Just like poverty creates handicap, handicap creates poverty. People tend to ostracise handicapped persons and this increases their financial problems. The family of the handicapped also falls into poverty. There is no doubt that the poorest people in India are the handicapped, or, to use a more politically correct language, differently-abled people.

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